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Solar batteries are becoming popular additions to solar energy projects of all scales. When it comes to the way your solar panels, batteries, and inverters are all wired together on your property, there are two main options: alternating current (AC) coupling and direct current (DC) coupling. Both AC and DC coupling have advantages and drawbacks that are dependent on the specifics of your solar plus storage installation.
AC vs. DC coupling: what’s the difference?
The key distinction between an AC-coupled and DC-coupled system lies in the path electricity takes once it is produced by solar panels. Solar panels generate DC electricity that must be transformed into AC electricity for your home’s appliances. However, solar batteries store electricity in DC form.
In an AC-coupled system, DC solar electricity flows from solar panels to a solar inverter that transforms the electricity into AC electricity. That AC electricity can then flow to your home appliances, or go to another inverter that transforms the electricity back to DC for storing in a battery system. With AC-coupled systems, any electricity that is stored in the battery system needs to be inverted three separate times before use.
In a DC-coupled system, DC solar electricity flows from solar panels to a charge controller that directly feeds into a battery system, meaning there is no inversion of solar electricity from DC to AC and back again before the electricity is stored in the battery. Any electricity produced by the solar panels will be inverted only once (from DC to AC), either as it flows from batteries to your home electrical setup or out to the electrical grid.
Historically, AC-coupled battery storage setups have been more common for residential and commercial solar installations, but as more DC options become available, DC coupling is gaining in popularity.